Transformational Leadership

ransformational Leadership

Memories of our lives, of our works and

our deeds will continue in others.

Rosa Parks (1913-2005)

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Overview

Charismatic LeadershipCharacteristicsTransformational LeadershipCharacteristicsTransformational Leadership Continuum

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Charismatic Leadership(House, 1976)

Positive Characteristics

Passionate, drivenForm emotional attachmentsCompelling visionHeightened emotional levelsCan result in positive social changes

Negative Characteristics

Passion can be used for selfish or personal gainsLoyalty and devotion to leader can result in unquestioned obedience with disregard to one’s self-interestCan be narcissistic

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Provided impetus for

Transformational Leadership

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Transformational Leadership

James McGregor Burns, Leadership (1978)Focus of much of today’s

research

Process that changes and transforms an individualEmpowers followers and nurtures them in change

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Transformational Leadership Described

Raises the consciousness in individuals and gets them to transcend their own self-interests for the sake of othersMust be strong role model and highly developed set of moral values and sense of identityCreate a vision which is the collective interests of others in the organizationAlways involves conflict and change to perpetuate a cause

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Transformational Leadership Qualities

Change agentExceptional influenceCharismaticVisionaryAppeal to higher ideals and valuesSpirit of cooperationControversialInspirational motivationIntellectual stimulation

Raise consciousnessListens to opposing viewsEthicalStrong role modelArticulateConfidentForm strong emotional attachment with followers

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Transformational Leadership Model

Bass (1985) extended Burns’ work then teamed with AvolioGave more attention to followers’ needsUnlike Burns, Bass viewed leadership as amoralLeaders can transform followers by:Increasing their awareness of task importance and valueGetting them to focus on organization goals, rather than their ownActivating their higher-order needs

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Transformational Leadership Continuum(Bass & Avolio, 1985, 1990, 1997)

Multifactor Leadership QuestionnaireEvaluates leadership style

StylesLaissez FaireTransactional LeadershipTransformational Leadership

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Transformational Leadership Continuum

Laissez Faire

“Hands off”InactiveAvoid making decisionsGives no feedbackWait for things to go wrong before actingNo personal/professional growth for followers

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Transformational Leadership Continuum

Transactional

Focus on exchange between leader and followersFocus on expectations and goals; task completionRelies on organizational rewards and punishmentsNo enduring purpose or societal changeNo moral componentDoesn’t individualize needs of followersNo personal developmentCan be marginally successfullyCan build a base level of trustVery common, everyday type of leadership

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Transformational Leadership Continuum

Transformational

Appeals to followers’ values and sense of higher purposeCompelling vision of what society or organization could beConnection raises the level of motivational and morality – realize ethical consequences of decisionsMoral exercise that serves to raise the standard of human conduct – go beyond self-interestFocus on followers reaching their full potential

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Transformational Leadership

Criticisms

Difficult to measureFocus on the “great leader”Trait rather than behavior to be acquiredElitist/heroicPotential for abuseResearch focuses on senior leaders

Strengths

Widely researched with positive resultsEthical/moral componentEmphasis on followers’ needsFocus of much of today’s research

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