Peer Responses: Due: Monday Length: A minimum of 150 words per post, not includi

Peer Responses:
Due: Monday
Length: A minimum of 150 words per post, not including references
Citations: At least one high-level scholarly reference in APA per post from within the last 5 years
Peer Post:
The beer criteria have provided a certain list, which helps to define those drugs not to be used and are avoided in the population. There is a huge significance because it helps in the selection of medication, reduces the harmful effects of drugs. It helps to asset cost, pattern, and quality of care for those people who belong in above the 65 age group. It has been seen generally that inappropriate medication can cause an adverse effect on older adults. Health care professionals such as clinicians are recommended to follow certain guidelines to improve the safety of older adults. The beer criteria have provided a certain list, which helps to define those drugs not to be used and are avoided in the population. There is a huge significance because it helps in the selection of medication, reduces the harmful effects of drugs. It helps to provide a tool to asset cost, pattern, and quality of care for those people who belong in above the 65 age group. In the year 2019, it has been stated that 30 numbers of medications or classes are avoided for the patient with the selective disease condition and some are used with the cautions (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).
Dose calculation and mathematic calculations provide basic skills for the safe administrations. There are three methods for the calculations of medications that are dimensional analysis, ratio proportions, and the formula method. The safe pediatrics doses are calculated by body weight (measured in milligram per kilogram), body surface area (measured in square meter). The pharmacokinetic studies provide complicated suggestions for the restricted age groups such as in children and older adults. The doses distribution, absorption, metabolism, and excretion vary from age groups in general (Alwan & Chambers, 2015). The United States Food and drug administration (FDA) has set the data for drug usage in every class. For this, it is important to check the dose calculations so that the child dose must not exceed as compared to the adult dosage. There are several methods for evaluation of dose calculations, which are done by therapeutic drug monitoring, results of studies, and surrogate methods. Therapeutic drug monitoring is considered as the safest and effective. It helps to prevent the toxicity of the children. Dose calculation and mathematic calculations provide basic skills for the safe administrations. There are three methods for the calculations of medications that are dimensional analysis, ratio proportions, and the formula method. The safe pediatrics doses are calculated by body weight (measured in milligram per kilogram), body surface area (measured in square meter). It is important to consider the appropriate conversant factors for the simplistic units of measurements. The accuracy is ensured by the double and triple cross-checking the calculations (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021)
The administration of major teratogenic drugs or high doses during the first trimester is associated with the high risk of having fetus deformities. During this period the fetus may have congenital malformations. A human teratogen is a potent agent, which has the capability to alter the structure and growth of the developing embryo or fetus. It causes defects or abnormalities in the fetus. The exposure of these teratogens is avoided to reduce the negative impact during pregnancy. The impact varies with the time of exposure, and drug concentration. The administration of major teratogenic drugs or high doses during the first trimester is associated with the high risk of having fetus deformities. During this period the fetus may have congenital malformations. The risk reduces gradually from second to the third trimester of the pregnancy. For example, warfarin, valproic acid, and isotretinoin are some teratogenic drugs that are associated with malformations (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).
The long half-life drugs can be beneficial in the case of medicinal necessity. If a person has to take only one medication, it will persist 12 to 24 hours completely. Even if the patient forgets to take medications on time, still the effect of the drug will last long.The half-life of the drug is said to be the time interval required to metabolize or eliminated through the bloodstream. The drug dose is reduced to its half-life (50%) from the time it’s been taken. The half-life varies from person to person according to body composition, height, and weight. The long half-life drugs require more time to leave the bloodstream, whereas short half-life drugs are quick to leave the bloodstream and are quite effective. Therefore, there is more dependence on short half-life drugs on patients. The long half-life drugs can be beneficial in the case of medicinal necessity. If a person has to take only one medication, it will persist 12 to 24 hours completely. Even if the patient forgets to take medications on time, still the effect of the drug will last long (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).
In the case of poor metabolizer, if the patient is prescribed a certain amount of dose, the patient will experience very slow or no effect due to the slow breakdown of the medications. Due to poor metabolism, the patient would not be able to get the desired effect.There are four different types of metabolizers are categorized based on metabolism capability such as poor, intermediate, extensive, and ultrarapid metabolizers. In the case of poor metabolizer, if the patient is prescribed a certain amount of dose, the patient will experience very slow or no effect due to the slow breakdown of the medications. Due to poor metabolism, the patient would not be able to get the desired effect. In this case, the desired medication at a certain dose may not work. Hence, if the patient is on high medication is also considered as a poor metabolizer (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).
The effect of the drug may vary from person to person because the drug can able to interact with the other drug, food, beverages, and dietary supplements. The drug interactions may affect the activity of the drug either it can enhance or reduce its effect or can cause side effects. Major food substances have been reported to cause side effects of the medications such as high intake of fatty acids, high proteins, and fibers. It is important to understand that the effect of the drug may vary from person to person because the drug can able to interact with the other drug, food, beverages, and dietary supplements. The drug interactions may affect the activity of the drug either it can enhance or reduce its effect or can cause side effects. Many drugs have powerful ingredients and can significantly impact the diet and lifestyle of the patient. Major food substances have been reported to cause side effects of the medications such as high intake of fatty acids, high proteins, and fibers that can alter the rate of absorption. Yes, it is important to consider the ingestion in elder patients (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).
References: Alwan, S., & Chambers, C. D. (2015). Identifying Human Teratogens: An Update. Journal of pediatric genetics, 4(2), 39-41. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1556745
Rosenthal, L.D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice Nurses (2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.