Mr. CY, age 71, has had significant emphysema for six years. He has reduced his

Mr. CY, age 71, has
had significant emphysema for six years. He has reduced his cigarette smoking
since mild congestive heart failure was diagnosed (right-sided heart failure;
refer to Chapter 12). He has been admitted to the hospital with a suspected
closed pneumothorax and respiratory failure.
Describe the pathophysiologic
changes in the lungs with emphysema and explain how these affect oxygen
and carbon dioxide levels in the blood.
Explain how emphysema can lead
to heart failure. What signs and symptoms would you expect to develop in
Mr. CY? Classify each as a subjective or objective finding.
Explain how a pneumothorax has
probably occurred in the presence of emphysema.
Explain how a pneumothorax can
cause respiratory failure. Describe the pathophysiologic effects on lung
function and gas exchange in your answer. Include the criteria for respiratory
failure.
Explain why caution must be
exercised in administering oxygen to Mr. CY.
The impaired respiration Mr. CY
experiences as a result of his emphysema causes immobility. Immobility can
lead to other respiratory complications. Identify two of these conditions
and describe preventative measures for each.
Describe several respiratory
therapy interventions that might help Mr. CY return his body to a more
homeostatic state.
Emphysema, as experienced by
this patient, is an obstructive pulmonary disease, which is different than
restrictive pulmonary diseases. Compare and contrast the pathophysiology,
manifestations, and interventions to help return to homeostasis for
obstructive and restrictive respiratory disorders.