Here is a brief outline to my research paper
*You do not have to use the sources that I put in the outline, however please use the topic sentences(claims) I wrote down, just remember that the minimum number of sources is 10*
Research Paper Topic: Economic and social issues related to gentrification
Title: Gentrification, hardly the solution to reshaping society
Thesis statement: Gentrification has become a calamitous method of reforming society which has caused countless economic and social issues to society and its people.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the economic and social consequences of gentrications. My role is to offer details and reasons as to how gentrification is affecting society and why developers should turn to other ways to improve a neighborhood. This argument will target local government officials and developers that are looking to ramificate new projects and drive economic growth into an area. I will defend the following thesis: Gentrification has become a calamitous method of reforming society which has caused countless economic and social issues to society and its people.
Background examination of issue:
Gentrification refers to the “process whereby the character of a poor urban area is changed by wealthier people moving in, improving housing, and attracting new businesses, typically displacing current inhabitants in the process.”
-“The term “gentrification” was first coined in the 1960s by British sociologist Ruth Glass (1964) to describe the displacement of the working-class residents of London neighborhoods by middle-class newcomers. The history of gentrification in America starts in the 1960s, when the term was coined. Over the next five and a half decades, communities have wielded varying tools and strategies in response to gentrification’s challenges.”
-“Gentrification and displacement of long-time residents was most intense in the nation’s biggest cities, and rare in most other places.”
-“Displacement of black and Hispanic residents accompanied gentrification in many places and impacted at least 135,000 people in our study period. In Washington, D.C., 20,000 black residents were displaced, and in Portland, Oregon, 13 percent of the black community was displaced over the decade.”
-“In this study, neighborhoods were considered to be eligible to gentrify if in 2000 they were in the lower 40 percent of home values and family incomes in that metropolitan area.”
Thesis: Gentrification has become a calamitous method of reforming society which has caused countless economic and social issues to society and its people.
-Bodies of argument
Claim 1: Gentrification results in the rise of rent which causes residents to be displaced
The boroughs of New York City are an excellent example of this disadvantage when gentrification occurs. The current median rent in Brooklyn is over $6000 per month. That is not an entry-level price that the average household can afford in the city. Unless their rent controls placed on the new dwellings that rise when a community is being gentrified, the families that may have lived in the area for generations are suddenly forced to find a new place to live. The newcomers are not trying to merge themselves into the existing community. They want to make it their own.
“Displacement of black and Hispanic residents accompanied gentrification in many places and impacted at least 135,000 people in our study period. In Washington, D.C., 20,000 black residents were displaced, and in Portland, Oregon, 13 percent of the black community was displaced over the decade.”
“As property prices increase, the original residents of the neighborhood are forced out in a variety of ways. First, with an increase in the prices of buildings, the gap between the price of the building and the income that the landlord gets from renting the building grows bigger; landlords thus increase rent prices, which forces out the low-income residents.”
Claim 2: A consequence of gentrification is fostering of discriminatory behavior by people in power
“A recent New York Times article features a Black Brooklyn homeowner who went to talk to a new white neighbor and was mistaken as a panhandler: “I went over to strike conversation and before I could finish a sentence, he told me that he didn’t have any money,” the man told the Times. Stories like this of Black homeowners watching their neighborhoods change around them abound, often with the earlier residents experiencing culture shock as the new entrants treat them or longstanding cultural markers with disdain.”
Claim 3: Gentrification reduces social capital
“In a community undergoing gentrification, the average income increases and the average family size decreases. Poorer pre-gentrification residents who are unable to pay the increased rents or property taxes may be driven out. Consequently, new businesses arrive to the area, which can afford the increased commercial rent. They cater specifically to a more affluent base of consumers—further increasing the appeal to higher-income migrants and decreasing accessibility to the poor.”
Opposing argument 1: Gentrification generates new options for food, jobs and facilities
“The primary reason that gentrification becomes a disadvantage for many communities is that it typically replaces the people who built them in the first place. When these people leave, you lose the soul of the neighborhood. Although there are retail benefits to consider, along with extra job opportunities, there is a different experience provided when you replace a mom-and-pop coffee shop with a Starbucks. You are effectively replacing community landmarks with corporate branding.”
Claim 4: Cultural standards of a neighborhood is changed by gentrification
“Another impact of displacement to consider is cultural displacement. Even for long-time residents who are able to stay in newly gentrifying areas, changes in the make-up and character of a neighborhood can lead to a reduced sense of belonging, or feeling out of place in one’s own home.”
Claim 5: In some cases, gentrification can make a community poorer
Evidence: “Although the process of gentrification intends to improve the economic conditions of the community, the opposite can sometimes occur. This change takes a negative form when the new members of the neighborhood have a preference for franchise stores, brand names, and overall convenience. The mom-and-pop shops that typically dominate these areas before they gentrify struggle to stay in business because they cannot compete on the same economy of scale.”
Opposing argument 2: Gentrification causes drops in city crime
“MIT studied the process of gentrification what it occurred in Cambridge, Massachusetts beginning in 1995. When neighborhoods were gentrified after rent-controlled housing abruptly ended that year, researchers found that there was a 16% drop in crime that offered measurable economic gains. The only problem is that most crime in Cambridge wasn’t caused by the people who lived there – which is a trend that stretches to other communities as well.”
Claim 6: Gentrification creates a high turnover rate for businesses.
“From City Observatory, here’s an interesting chart ripped from a study about small business turnover and gentrification in New York City. It compares the number of businesses that close, go vacant, or are replaced with new businesses in gentrifying and non-gentrifying neighborhoods (gentrifying neighborhoods were defined as meeting a certain change in income within a census tract). The percentage of small businesses that leave their storefront and are replaced by another business—the kind of scenario you’d expect to see in a gentrifying neighborhood, with (say) bodegas getting replaced by artisanal coffee shops—is very slightly higher in non-gentrifying neighborhoods than in gentrifying ones.
The essential fact here is that local storefront businesses have a high rate of turnover generally. So while there are lots of examples of businesses going out of existence in gentrifying neighborhoods, there are lots of examples in other kinds of neighborhoods as well.”
Campus, Visit et al. “Examining The Negative Impacts Of Gentrification”. Law.Georgetown.Edu, 2022, https://www.law.georgetown.edu/poverty-journal/blog/examining-the-negative-impacts-of-gentrification/. Accessed 20 May 2022.
crime, New. “New Study: Gentrification Triggered 16 Percent Drop In City Crime | MIT Sloan”. MIT Sloan, 2022, https://mitsloan.mit.edu/ideas-made-to-matter/new-study-gentrification-triggered-16-percent-drop-city-crime.
Gaille, Louise. “21 Gentrification Pros And Cons”. Vittana.Org, 2022, https://vittana.org/21-gentrification-pros-and-cons.
“Gentrification Effects On Housing Prices In Neighbouring Areas | Emerald Insight”. Emerald.Com, 2022, https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJHMA-04-2021-0049/full/html#:~:text=According%20to%20the%20hedonic%20price,around%206%25%E2%80%938%25.
“History Of Gentrification In America: A Timeline | Next City”. Nextcity.Org, 2022, https://nextcity.org/history-of-gentrification.
“Managing The Potential Undesirable Impacts Of Urban Regeneration: Gentrification And Loss Of Social Capital | Urban Regeneration”. Urban-Regeneration.Worldbank.Org, 2022, https://urban-regeneration.worldbank.org/node/45#:~:text=In%20a%20community%20undergoing%20gentrification,afford%20the%20increased%20commercial%20rent.
“Shifting Neighborhoods: Gentrification And Cultural Displacement In American Cities » NCRC”. NCRC, 2022, https://ncrc.org/gentrification/.
“What Are Gentrification And Displacement – Urban Displacement”. Urbandisplacement.Org, 2022, https://www.urbandisplacement.org/about/what-are-gentrification-and-displacement/.
“What We Talk About When We Talk About Gentrification”. Vox, 2022, https://www.vox.com/22629826/gentrification-definition-housing-racism-segregation-cities.
“Gentrification In America Report”. Governing, 2022, https://www.governing.com/archive/gentrification-in-cities-governing-report.html.
Here is a brief outline to my research paper